Spacewar! (1962)

The more things change…

Spacewar! was the first video game the way that Little Richard was the first rock star. Both gracefully wrote a fairly complete rulebook for a future worldwide obsession, yet were known to such niche (or, in Richard’s case, unfairly marginalized) audiences that it’s no wonder they now play footnote to the Pongs and Presleys of history. Whether or not Spacewar! was technically the first video game does not particularly interest me; no matter how far back you go in a movement, there will always be people searching for antecedents, trying to stretch a genre back to its very kernel. OXO (a tic-tac-toe simulator) and Tennis for Two (a rarely glimpsed Pong predecessor) have Spacewar! beat chronologically, but if we’re discussing what games are “about” beyond just being graphical representations on a computer screen, then it’s no contest.

Spacewar! still holds up to the modern definition of what a video game looks like, plays like, and who it primarily appeals to, to an extent that we are not just discussing technical influence, but the creation of the mythos and values of an entire medium. It’s possible the last fifty years of video games (which, importantly, are also the first fifty years of video games) have been less about true innovation than refining what Spacewar! achieved, turning a group of early MIT programmers’ brainy off-hours passion project into something accessible enough that at this very moment, your eight year-old nephew is probably playing some rip-off of it on his cell phone.

Obviously, I have not played Spacewar! in its original incarnation. I’ve messed around with emulators of it and its imitators, but I haven’t tracked down a working PDP-1 computer, a Stonehedge rock-esque slab of a device measuring somewhere between three and five full-size refrigerators. Yet the game’s influence is so deeply entrenched, its rules and subject matter so second nature to anyone with even a passing interest in this stuff, that despite the primordial, unavailable contraption that housed its code, hearing the title still manages to instill one with a mighty case of deja vu.

Essentially, Spacewar! is a deathmatch game. There are no ancient secrets or rudimentary design decisions that add an asterisk to that categorization; if you’re familiar with Spacewar!’s direct arcade inheritors, or even the competitive first-person shooters from the ’90s and beyond, you know what to expect. Each player controls a distinctly designed spaceship, floating haphazardly through a screen-sized quadrant of the final frontier. The ships are armed with torpedoes and jet boosters; would it shock you to learn that the player’s sole motivation is to destroy his opponent’s ship?

Yet it’s in its restrictions and subtleties where Spacewar! most resembles the more polished games of today. For one, it’s a creation with a deep respect for physics and science. Its spaceships orbit a central sun, forever pulling them closer to possible doom and endowing their limited universe with a tactile believability. This is the first attempt to create a game in a representative physical location, the earliest virtual place participants could feel they actually inhabited when they logged in. Spacewar! also only allows players a limited supply of missiles and fuel, meaning this is a game of strategy as well as reflexes. From the start, video games were designed with a learning curve; this was a hobby requiring practice, something you actually had to perfect.

Perhaps even more strangely recognizable about the Spacewar! programmer microcosm of the ’60s and ’70s are the reactions from the actual human beings who played the thing. By all accounts, Spacewar! was an instant obsession among the limited number of people with access to it. It foreshadowed id Software’s famous boast that Doom was “the number one cause of decreased productivity in businesses around the world,” except unlike Doom, only the most brilliant computer programmers of the era could waste countless hours blowing each other to bits. Read up on the after-hours Spacewar! tournaments these eggheads held and try not to be reminded of your own late-night rounds of Goldeneye or Smash Bros.: that compulsive need for “one more round,” that funny-frustrating gargle of emotions when your best friend briefly became a mortal enemy.

Not that the rare common man who got his hands on Spacewar! felt much differently. After getting his ass squarely handed to him by a seasoned space warrior,  Joseph F. Goodavage, writing for men’s magazine Saga, concludes, “Like nearly everyone else who’d ever played this war game, I was instantly addicted and anxious for a rematch.” You can almost hear the itch in Goodavage’s voice as he describes the battle, his words embodying his visceral, almost inexplicable desire to curl up inside a game he loves, even when he’s losing at it. That longing to return to these imaginary, far-off places where we are but empowered guests remains the seductive bread and butter of video game obsession. Goodavage’s melodramatic take on his make-believe spaceship’s defeat also notes another unbroken standard set by Spacewar!: Punishment in video games traditionally bypasses any measured slaps on the wrist and leaps immediately to the extremity of death. This is not some piddly round of tic-tac-toe or table tennis; this is kill or be killed.

In a totality not seen in any other medium of creative expression, video games are forever linked to technology and those who can wield it. In other words, nerds. So it’s only fitting that the first true video game takes its inspiration from the schlocky, otherwise forgotten sci-fi novels of E.E. “Doc” Smith. Smith was an honest-to-goodness Ph.D. who began publishing sci-fi in the likes of Amazing Stories during the ’30s. (He’s also the guy who figured out how to get powdered sugar to stick to doughnuts, and I don’t know if I could think of a better analogy for Spacewar!’s long term influence on Americans’ acceptance of computers.)

Smith’s novels and imagination struck a chord with Spacewar!‘s designers beyond the immediate flashiness of his sleek star carriers, though. In a fascinating 1972 Rolling Stone article by Stewart Brand, lead Spacewar! programmer Stephen R. Russell explains why the inclusion of hyperspace – an emergency Spacewar! move that drops your ship in a random location – is so haphazard. However, his explanation is one of a storyteller, not a hacker: “They [the Spacewar! characters] hadn’t done really a thorough job of testing them – they had rushed them into the fleet.” Before Star Trek or Star Wars, before Bioware or Bethesda – when all these nice young dweebs had to work with were Tolkien and dime store space operas – here was an attempt at lore, at giving a game context outside of what was on-screen.

The game’s exclusivity within college campuses and technology companies also resulted in something akin to the first mod scene. Spacewar! was an ever-evolving creature, a product of a more trustworthy time among the technological elite when forward momentum was more important than copyrights.

Unless you consider Pac-Man’s gluttony as a meditation on the fast-encroaching hedonism of the 1980s, it’s a rare game that reflects much about its era. Spacewar! is one of those games, a pitch perfect distillation of post-Sputnik, pre-Apollo 11 America’s  dual fear and love of space exploration. It’s odd (and a little disheartening) to think back to a time when America was deeply invested in space travel, and Peter Samson’s accurate star map that scrolls past Spacewar!‘s backdrop captures that wish to journey through space at its most wistful and doe-eyed. But the foreground of the game all but literally annihilates that wonder; Spacewar!‘s original development was only months before the Cuban missile crisis, a time when any leap in technology meant our enemies could someday pummel us from above. These two warring spaceships – with only the force of gravity between them – stand in as stark opposition as the sparring ideologies of the Cold War. It’s the era’s “us versus them,” “black versus white” worldview captured in computer code, made so gripping that the aforementioned Saga writer was convinced that Spacewar! was more a sign of things to come than a mere entertainment. (To be fair, the magazine supposedly had a history of running silly UFO stories, so this extremism should be taken with a grain of salt.) Games attempting to capture the zeitgeist these days usually fall flat, their ambitions far too blatant and on-the-nose. Perhaps we still have a few things to learn from Spacewar!


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35 thoughts on “Spacewar! (1962)

  1. cary says:

    You have a great article here. Video games didn’t *really* start with Pong, just as electricity didn’t *really* start with Thomas Edison. I’ve never heard of Spacewar! but I certainly enjoyed learning about it!

    • Thanks! I’d only briefly heard about Spacewar! before researching this article, seeing it on the occasional list of important games. (I think has it as #1 in their “Essential 50” a few years back.) But the more I looked into it, the more astonished I was how much they established with very little precedent.

      Also, Nolan Bushnell tried to make a coin operated Spacewar! rip-off in the early ’70s but it was too complex and clunky to find much mainstream appeal. It was the failure of that experiment that led him to strip down games as much as he could and release Pong.

  2. Steve says:

    I’ve been an self proclaimed avid gamer for 25 years now, and I had no idea about space war. This is an incredible historical account of what was, and what has become of the gaming universe. Thank you for this post.

    • Thanks a lot! If you’d like to learn more about Spacewar!, 1Up and Gamasutra have both run pretty fantastic articles about it, and the couple resources I linked to in my entry give a fascinating historical view on it.

  3. ryathaen says:

    You know, as much as I like to think I’m pretty well-versed in the history of video games, I honestly didn’t know that much about Spacewar! Not the details, in any case, and I’ve never played it. This is a fascinating trip through time. I have the feeling I’m going to learn a lot from you.

    • I know the feeling. Every few days or so, it seems like I stumble upon some classic, incredibly influential game that I previously knew nothing about and can’t wait to get my hands on. It’s great that there are so many rich resources and varying tastes within the community now; I feel like we all have a lot to learn from each other!

  4. I enjoyed your insights and the history of Spacewar. It’s interesting about the learning curve. Something has to be challenging but just still appealing enough to be willing to invest the time and interest to master it.

    • I think it’s definitely a huge part of the reason some gamers get so angry about the move toward “accessible” gaming like Wii Sports and Kinect and iPhone games. I’d totally argue that, as you said, the medium should be about balancing the two extremes..

  5. Very interesting post! Thanks for sharing and congrats on being Freshly Pressed!!

  6. Dorine says:

    Thank you so much for the discovery. I had no idea Spacewar! was the first video game. I especially love the parallel you make with Little Richard :-)

  7. shoutabyss says:

    Way cool. Very interesting. I love the old school computer games. One of my favorites is Nethack. Sure, it has no graphics but for those who can appreciate it, it really captures the imagination. These days it’s all about story arc and graphics.

    I like the story arc of Spacewar! just fine. :)

  8. ravensmarch says:

    When I was sometime before the release of Star Wars to the theatres (possibly as much as five years; memory grows hazy), there was a stand-up, stand-alone, arcade-ready version of Spacewar in the local dry cleaners. I remember the exquisite frustration of dropping in the coin, poking the thrust button, and dropping into the sun just before getting within shooting range of the opponent’s spacecraft. I longed for a day when I was older and understood physics better (not that I knew the name of that science at the time) and could enjoy the cool-looking game for more than twelve seconds at a stretch.

    Years later, when Asteroids appeared, I said to my young friends, “Hey, this is like Spacewar!” and absolutely no one knew what I was talking about.

    I hadn’t really grasped how long the game had been around before my encounter with it. Thanks for the little shove onto memory lane.

  9. Cute! How much research did you have to do to find out about this game?


    • There’s a fair amount of information out there about the game, and a few extensive write-ups I found very helpful. I tried to dig up everything I reasonably could, and made sure everything I posted checked out with multiple sources.

  10. bublibeauty says:

    cool post :)

  11. L. Palmer says:

    Sounds like everything great, addicting, and engrossing about gaming wrapped up in a relatively simple, historic video game.
    Now I want to go check it out. Everything’s better in SPACE.

    • There are some Java emulators of it if you can find a partner and don’t mind sharing a keyboard. It’s probably aged a little more than I make it sound in this article (and probably even worse at the time given the technology), but it’s still pretty incredible given the time it was made.

      And that last sentence in your comment is very true!

  12. I had no idea such a game existed. For me the intriguing part is that the new capability of the machine was co-opted at once for what at the time must have seemed frivolity. I believe the PDP-1 was also used to play music – Bach, apparently, well before Wendy Carlos got going with the Moog. Everything doubtless has antecedents, but as you say, the more intriguing part is the conceptualisation of them – the demonstration of lateral thought which leads to something utterly new.

  13. […] Spacewar! (1962). -An incredible historical account of what was, and what has become of the gaming universe. […]

  14. This seems to be too old and too awesome! I havent heard of this until now. Thank you!

  15. Matt Porter says:

    Nice article! Great to see some gaming goodness on Freshly Pressed. Space themed games have had somewhat of a renaissance recently, FTL, XCOM etc. Interesting to see the origins of this theme

  16. money prizes contests says:

    I remember playing a Space War arcade game way back when, back when Pong was all the rage! As simple as it was, it was actually a challenge to play and pretty fun!

  17. I actually have a tendency to agree with everything that is written throughout “Spacewar!
    (1962) | Playing the Canon”. Many thanks for pretty much all the actual tips.
    Many thanks,Karolyn

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